Tu-134 – a regional passenger aircraft, developed in the Design Bureau. Tupolev in the early 1960s. One of the most popular passenger aircraft manufactured in the USSR, in total, from 1966 to 1989, 854 units of various modifications were produced. The aircraft was operated in the USSR and allied countries.
In the early 1960s, world civil aviation entered the era of jetliners. The first Tu-104 jet aircraft in the USSR was used only on international and especially loaded intra-union lines, while morally obsolete aircraft were used on regional routes. The need for a new jet aircraft capable of carrying at least 40 people at a range of about 2,000 kilometers at a speed of 800-900 km / h became apparent.
However, the aircraft was not designed from scratch. The base for it was the Tu-124 airliner. The base aircraft has undergone significant changes, including the transfer of engines to the rear, lengthening the fuselage, and changing the tail design. The prototypes were released in 1963 and began to perform flight tests.
By 1965, the aircraft received the designation Tu-134 and finally replaced the predecessor Tu-124. A year later, mass production began at the Kharkiv Aviation Production Association, where it was produced 18 years before 1984.
The first production aircraft were transferred to Aeroflot in 1966. Tu-134 was actively exported: in 1968, the first aircraft was sold to the East German airline Interflug, and a little later to the Polish LOT.
By early 1972, most of the Tu-134 was operated on international flights, however, after the crash of the An-10 aircraft near Kharkiv in 1972, it was decided to abandon the obsolete aircraft and replace it with the Tu-134 on domestic flights. Since then, for a decade, this aircraft has been the main workhorse of regional air travel.
Until the early 1990s, the Tu-134 fleet in the USSR alone transported about 500 million passengers and today continues to operate on the lines of the CIS countries and the Air Force. In addition to passenger traffic, certain modifications are used in military and agricultural aviation.
Currently, aircraft are being decommissioned because they are outdated morally and physically. Some airplanes are installed as monuments.
Tu-134 – a short-haul passenger aircraft with two bypass engines installed in the rear of the fuselage. The tail is T-shaped (horizontal stabilizers raised to the top of the keel). The swept wing, located according to the low-wing scheme with mounted caisson fuel tanks and the main supports of the four-wheeled chassis.
- Tu-134 (1966-1970) The first series of liners, launched between 1966 and 1970 in the amount of 78 units, took on board from 64 passengers. Initially, the aircraft had the designation Tu-124A and only later became officially known as Tu-134. On the aircraft of the first series were equipped with a glazed nose and a brake parachute.
- Tu-134A (1970-1980) Since 1970, the large-scale production of the Tu-134A model, which lasted 10 years, begins. The aircraft was equipped with more efficient D-30 engines with thrust reversal, which made it possible to abandon the brake parachute and integrate the APU instead. The fuselage was lengthened by 2.1 meters, and the number of passengers increased to 76 people. It was with the Tu-134A model that the plane received a formed appearance. During the release process, some modifications were made to the model:
- Tu-134A-2 – nose glazing improvements were made;
- Tu-134A-3 – a series with improved engines D-30 of the third series;
- Tu-134AK – in the passenger cabin, it became possible to create a class 1 salon and a luxury salon. This modification was used mainly by the Air Force and government services.
- Tu-134B – the upgraded Tu-134A. The empty weight was reduced, large rear emergency exits were added, the crew was reduced to 3 people, a new layout of the cabin, cargo compartment, and auxiliary facilities were developed, passenger capacity increased to 80 seats. Serial production began in March 1980. Instead of the glazed nose cabin of the navigator, the Thunder-134 radar system was installed. The control of the power plant, elevator trimmer, and navigation system is transferred to the central console. Unlike the Tu-134A with a radar nose, 2 locator screens were installed on the side panels instead of one in the middle. Some models of B have an increased fuel supply.
- Type: Regional Passenger Aircraft
- Power plant: two double-circuit turbojet engines D-30-II at 6 930 kg each
- Maximum number of passengers: 80
- Practical ceiling: 10 100 m
- Range: 2,020 km
- Maximum take-off weight: 47.6 t
- Cruising speed: 880 km / h
- Wingspan: 29 m
- Wing area: 127 sq. m
- Length: 37.1 m
- Height: 9.02 m