IL-76 – Soviet heavy jet military transport aircraft, developed in the Design Bureau. Ilyushin in the early 1970s. The first in the history of the USSR jet military transport. The aircraft can transport the entire range of military equipment of the airborne units and most of the technology of motorized rifle divisions.
The first work in the framework of the new military transport aircraft program began in 1966 when the USSR Ministry of Aviation Industry commissioned OKB to them. Ilyushin to study the topic of creating heavy military transport of a new generation. A year later, by decree of the Council of Ministers, the program was officially launched. The work was carried out under the leadership of the Deputy General Designer of OKB G.V. Novozhilova.
The prototype made its first flight in 1971 under the control of the crew of the Hero of the Soviet Union E.I. Kuznetsov, flying Central Airfield. Frunze at the airport Ramenskoye. In the same year, he was first presented at the Le Bourget air show.
In 1973, the first flight of the serial Il-76 assembled at the Tashkent aircraft plant named after. Chkalov, where in the future it was produced. In total, about 1000 units were manufactured.
The aircraft was built according to the scheme traditional for heavy transport aircraft with a swept wing and a single-wing T-tail. Aircraft trapezoidal wing with a fracture along the trailing edge. The wing consoles are equipped with advanced mechanization, which includes five-section slats, two three-gap flaps, and four brake flaps. Also, to increase the manageability of the ailerons are made two-section. On the tail fin, there is a rudder with a trimmer.
The fuselage, round in cross-section, is divided into several airtight cabins: the cockpit (at the top of the nose of the fuselage), the navigator’s cockpit (under the cockpit), the cargo compartment and the arrow cabin of the aft gun mount (on military versions). In front of the fuselage are two hatches. At the stern is a three-wing rear cargo hatch with a ramp. The floor of the cargo compartment is equipped with roller tracks, which makes it possible to load, unload and land non-self-propelled mono-cargoes.
Four D-30KP jet engines are mounted on pylons under the wing. In the extreme versions of the IL-76 engines are replaced by PS-90A-76 with increased traction. The location of the APU is unusual for many aircraft – in front of the left fairing of the landing gear.
The chassis is five-legged, multi-wheeled, retractable into the fuselage. The nose support has 4 tubeless wheels. Wheels brake when cleaning. The main landing gear consists of front and rear struts. Each of the four racks has 4 chamber wheels.
The IL-76 has become a convenient platform for many modifications of both serial military and commercial aircraft, as well as special vehicles made in single pieces. In total, you can count several dozen different versions of the aircraft.
The latest version of the aircraft is IL-76MD-90A (Product-476) – a deep modernization of the aircraft. It is being built by the Ulyanovsk Aviation Plant Aviastar-SP, which is part of the UAC.
IL-76 of various modifications is the main aircraft of the military transport aviation of Russia and Ukraine. It is also in service with the air forces of the CIS countries, Algeria, India, Jordan, Iran, Iraq, China, Libya, North Korea, and Syria.
Airplanes of military transport modifications took part in all military conflicts starting from Afghanistan, and later on the territory of the former USSR. Airplanes showed their high efficiency there. Numerous commercial companies use civilian modifications for transportation.
As of November 28, 2010, as a result of catastrophes and serious accidents, 63 aircraft were lost, of which 14 were aircraft as a result of hostilities.
- Type Heavy military transport aircraft
- Power plant four double-circuit turbojet engines 4 turbofan engines D-30KP 12 000 kg each
- Maximum payload 60 tons of cargo, 140 soldiers or 128 paratroopers
- Practical ceiling 12,000 m
- Flight range 6100 km (20 tons of cargo), 3000 km (47 tons of cargo)
- Maximum take-off weight 170 t
- Cruising speed 800 km / h
- Wingspan 50.5 m
- The wing area is 300 square meters. m
- Length 46.59 m
- Height 14.76 m